Natural Climate Solutions for Canada

The data below indicate the mitigation potential from pathways for which provincial-scale data are available. Nine other pathways have only national mitigation estimates and are not indicated.

2030 Mitigation potential
Million tons CO2e per year
2019 net emissions (Canada)
Million tons CO2e per year
Mitigation Potential
(Million tons CO2e per year)
NCA Potential

Mitigation Pathways

Marginal Abatement Cost
$ per ton of CO2e
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Avoided freshwater wetland conversion
Prevented emissions from draining, filling or conversion of freshwater mineral wetlands (29,335 ha/yr) like marshes or swamps.
Avoided grassland conversion
Prevented emissions from land conversion and crop cultivation in 2.5M ha dominated by native or introduced grasses.
Avoided loss of shelterbelts
Prevented emissions and forgone sequestration through loss of 586 km/yr of shelterbelts in Prairie provinces.
Cover crops
Increased sequestration and avoided N2O emissions from planting early season and fall cover crops in 20.5 million ha with annual cash crops.
Crop residue - Biochar
Increased sequestration from amending agricultural soils with biochar produced from crop residue.
Freshwater mineral wetland restoration
Increased sequestration from restoring hydrological function and other techniques in 250,000 ha of freshwater wetlands.
Improved forest management
Additional carbon storage in forests or wood products associated with old forest conservation, enhanced regeneration, and improved wood utilization.
Nutrient management
Prevented N2O land emissions or emissions from fertilizer manufacture by implementation of best use (“4R”) practices of nitrogen fertilizer.
Reduced tillage
Increased sequestration from expanded use of no-till or reduced tillage practices in 3.6M ha of croplands.
Restoration of forest cover
Additional sequestration from restoration with native trees of 3.8M ha of forest in areas where forests historically occurred and where planting is not an existing obligation.
Riparian grassland restoration
Increased sequestration by restoring 265,500 ha of cropland to grassland in prairie areas with severe limitations on agricultural production.
Riparian tree planting
Increased sequestration from planting trees in 200,319 ha of riparian buffers around all water bodies in agricultural zones where forests are the natural cover.
Salt marsh restoration
Increased sequestration from restoring hydrological function (rewetting) or topography to 44,130 ha of salt marshes in eastern Canada.
Increased sequestration from integration of tree crops, livestock and forage in 985,518 ha of existing pasture lands.
Tree intercropping
Increased sequestration from trees planted in rows among 797,298 ha of crop and hay lands in Ontario and Quebec.
Province NCS Mitigation
(Mt CO2 per year)
Full Extent
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Pathway NCS Mitigation
(Mt CO2 per year)